There is a cry for industrialisation all over India. The Indian Government’s Fifteen-Year Reconstruction Plan for India, the Bombay Plan, and all the other recent plans of the National Government as well as the State Governments have realized importance of industrialization and have aimed at it. Importance of industrialization The modern age is an age of science and technology well-advanced to be able to stand out among he progressive nations of the world. It is really sorrowful to note that India is passing through the cycle-age at present while other powerful nations of the world have reached the jet-age. If Indians thing that they can be prosperous only by depending on agriculture mainly, they are in a fool’s paradise. England, U S. A. and Russia have improved their economy and have solved the various national problems by means of industrialization. India will have to follow suit.
Agriculture versus Industrialization
India is primarily a country of agriculture. Some economists are of opinion that are she must concentrate on agriculture more than on industrialization. Concentration on agriculture will be harmful to the case of industrialization It is a wrong analysis. India can improve her agriculture and industry both at the same time. Besides cultivators there are many artisans in India, They follow their ancestral trade. Weavers, potters, smiths, carpenters, utensil makers and others belong to this class. Thus, a large section of the population earns bread by these handicrafts. India has several huge centres of modern industries as Jamshedpur, Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Bombay, Calcutta etc. But all the people cannot work there. Besides, mills and factories cannot meet all the necessities of the people Hence, there is still the necessity of these artisans. In the past, their tools were crude Now with the advancement of science and technology, better tools and machines have been made for the benefit of those artisans This is a very great advantage. It is not desirable that all the people should flock to the towns for employment in mills and factories. So there is great scope for and need of industries in the villages. Electricity is now supplying power in the villages. The introduction of industries in the villages in any form will solve the problem of rural unemployment to a great extent. Cultivators have to remain idle for a considerable period during a year. If they learn a useful craft, they can earn money to improve their economic condition.
Rapid industrialization and village industries
The uplift of the rural population means the uplift of India. Big industries cannot take India further on the way to prosperity. Rapid industrialization is not practicable in India. We have to recognize the importance of village industries. India cannot afford to repeat the errors of the western countries. Rapid industrialization gives rise to capitalism. helps the growth of slums and all the attendant vices of slum life and ultimately make human life insecure by keeping it under excessive mechanization. India is heading towards socialism as her political and economic aim. It is a recognized fact that industrialization in modern times can mean only one thing the evil of organised and greedy capitalism. To a certain extent the two can go hand to hand. Whereas it is very necessary for Indian to develop basic industries such as metallurgy, heavy engineering machinery. transport, chemicals, power, mining defense industries etc. It is also necessary to revive cottage industries so that the overall income of the average villager may increase and he may have more purchasing power. Now we should make all possible efforts to co ordinate large-scale industries with the revival of cottage industries.
In the process of industrialization. India should learn lessons from the West, keeping in mi d the evils and dangers of industrialization. India should concentrate upon a balanced type of industrialization Then India will be looked upon as a model by the West.