The basic industry of India is agriculture. India is the greatest grower of sugarcane in the world and he stands next in the production of rice. In cotton, only the U. S. A. can surpass her. She is second to none in the world in the production of groundnuts. She is the biggest producer of tea, leaving China. In Jute and lac, she holds monopoly in the world. In the light of this, it is indeed sorrowfully surprising that India is faced with deficit in her food requirements. It requires a complete analysis of the situation.
Indian agriculture is static and unscientific
Many factors are responsible for the creation of food problem in India. Sometimes, the rivers are flooded account of heavy rains to the destruction of crops. Sometimes monsoons fail and there are conditions of drought India’s population is increasing by leaps and bounds. The method of Indian agriculture is static and unscientific. In India, some people have so much land that they cannot cultivate it properly while some people have no land at all.
Agriculture in India should be given a scientific basis
The problem of agriculture in India should be tackled on a scientific basis. The programme of intensive cultivation should be launched upon. We should raise the low yield of every crop by bringing into service all the knowledge and implements which the modern science has given us. The Indian farmer is conservative, orthodox and illiterate and is not readily willing to give up the age-old methods of cultivation which are out of date now. His unprogressive outlook is the greatest hurdle in the way of improvement in agriculture. The National Government has to make a great change in the farmer’s outlook before launching upon any scheme for agricultural development in India. Special emphasis should be laid on the use of better irrigational facilities. It is the duty of the Government to supply better seeds and fertilizers. Farmers have to be trained in the use of scientific implements and chemical fertilizers. Cow dung and other animal droppings should be checked from being used as fuel.
Irrigation and control of floods
Irrigation is a very important factor in Indian agriculture. The farmers should not be felt any longer at the mercy of rains. India has big resources of water, but at present, the bulk of this water moves about in ferocious floods. causing great damage to life and property. This water has to be utilized properly. New canals should be dug, tube-wells should be sunk in such a number that Indian farmers may get sufficient water for irrigation in time.
Co-operative farming, reclamation and cattle
The total area under cultivation should be increased by means of reclamation The fallow land should be brought under the plough and there should be proper distribution of land. In spite of selling on land, some people in India have too much of land while some are landless Co operative farming in our country is not possible at present. It may be adopted on a small scale or for the sake of experiment. If it proves useful, it should be adopted on a large scale. As a national scheme, it should be put off at least for three decades. Within this time. Indian farmers will be mentally and technically intelligent enough to under stand the advantages of co-operative farming. Cattle have been the greatest source of wealth in India Unluckily, Indians are indifferent towards their bullocks who form the backbone on Indian agriculture. They are of poor quality All the farmers of India can never be in a position to have tractors. They will have to depend on bullocks more or less. So they should have healthy and good bullocks.
Indian farmers lack in initiative. They require guidance. Mechanisation, better seeds and fertilisers, technical education to farmers, sufficient means of irrigation, equal distribution of land and the introduction of scientific methods will certainly revolutionize Indian agriculture. We must try to make agriculture attractive and remunerative for modern youths. It is by then that Indian agriculture will have to be improved.