Rabi Crops: About Wheat production

About Wheat: Wheat is planted on a third of India’s agricultural land. It is India’s most significant food grain, second only to rice, and the main food of millions of Indians, notably in the country’s northern and north-western regions. It’s high in proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates, and it’s a complete meal.

After China, India is the world’s second-largest wheat producer, accounting for 15.15% of global wheat production. Wheat can be grown in soils with a clay loam or loam texture, good structure, and a moderate water holding capacity. Wheat can be grown in heavy soil with good drainage when the weather is dry.

Growing Season

Wheat crop sowing on-time guarantees good crop stand, yield, and avoids terminal heat stress at maturity. The best timing for field preparation and wheat sowing is the first week of November with zero tillage and late sowing by December 20th. Increase the seed rate by 10-20% in late-sown wheat. If there isn’t enough moisture, use light irrigation and finish sowing.

Varieties of wheat

  • Varieties include DBW 187, HD 2967, K1317, HD 3226, DBW 39, K0307, HD 2824, HD 2402, CBW 38, PBW 343, Sabour Samridhi wheat types.
  • Delayed seedings because of late paddy harvesting include varieties like HD 3118, HD 2985, HI 1563, DBW 107, DBW 14, HD 2643, HP 1633, HD 2307, DBW 173, and PBW 752.
  • Varieties recommended for dry locations are HD 3171, HD 2888, K 8027, C 306, MACS 6145, Sabour Nirjal, HDR 77, K 9465.

Procedure and Chemicals required

Maintain a row spacing of 20 cm between two rows in a normal planted crop and 18 cm between two rows in a delayed seeded crop. For optimum productivity, apply 150-120 kg N, 60 kg P2O5, and 40 kg K2O per hectare. Deliver nitrogen in two split doses, First of 60 kg as a basal dosage, and the remainder of 60-70 kg is to be used during the first irrigation along with full dose of phosphorus and potash as a basal dose. To boost yield in a rice-wheat system, apply zinc at a rate of 25 kg/ha. Apply 100-120 kg N, 40 kg P2O5, and 20 kg K2O/ha in late sown conditions, and 60 kg N, 30 kg P2O5, and 20 kg K2O/ha in rain-fed conditions.

When the plant suffers from moisture stress, one irrigation during the CRI stage (20-25 days after planting) and another irrigation at the heading stage is critical.

In Bihar, four irrigations are often necessary during important stages of crop growth: the first at the CRI stage (20-25 DAS), the second late Jointing stage (40-45 DAS), the third at the heading stage (65-70 DAS), and the fourth at the milking stage (90-100 DAS).

Pest Management

Weeds with broad and narrow leaves are commonly infested in wheat fields. To combat mixed weed flora narrow and broad leaf weed :

  • Use of Sulfosulfuron + metsulfuron @40g/ha or clodinofob + metsulfuron 400g/ha combined with 500L of water and spray after 25- 30DAS.
  • After 30-35DAS, spray metsulfuron at 10 g a.i./ha or 2,4-D Na salt at 1.0 kg a.i./ha to suppress broad leaf weed.

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