Wheat demands a clayey loam soil that is well drained. Wheat can, however, be grown successfully in both sandy loam and black soil. It’s sowed when the average daily temperature drops to around 22-23 0C, as it did in October and November of last year. Seed rates of 100 kg/ha for medium grain types, 125 kg/ha for bold seeded varieties, and 125-150 kg/ha for late planted varieties are advised.
Seed treatment with carboxin (75 WP) @2.5 g/kg seed, carbendazim (50 WP) @ 2.5 g/kg seed, tebuconazole (2DS) @ 1.25 g/kg seed, or a combination of carboxin (75 WP) @ 1.25 g/kg seed and a bioagent fungus, Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed is advised.
Yellow rust, powdery mildew, brown rust, Karnal bunt, and spot blotch can also be managed using foliar sprays of propiconazole at 0.1 percent, and seed treatment with chlorpyriphos at 0.9g a.i. /kg seed in termite-prone locations. When there are more than 10 aphids per tiller or 5 aphids per ear head, use Imidacloprid17.8 SL as a foliar spray at 100ml/ha.
Irrigated wheat takes four to six irrigations, depending on the soil and weather conditions. If there is enough water for two irrigations, it should be done at the crown root initiation and boot leaf stages.
During the growing season, the crop requires temperatures of around 12-150°C, and at maturity, temperatures of around 30°C. The most favorable soil type for barley cultivation is sandy to moderately heavy loam soils with neutral to salty response and medium fertility.
To protect the crop from termites, ants, and other insects, two to three ploughings with a cultivator are recommended, followed by planking after each ploughing.
Seed treatment is also recommended. 50 kg/ha for upland, 25 kg/ha for lowland and hilly regions is the optimal seed rate. Sowing should be done in rows, either with a seed drill or in furrows behind the plough. Sowing depth should be between 4.0 and 5.0cm.
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) can be managed by spraying Imidacloprid 200 SL at 100 ml/ha in 200-250 liters of water per hectare. By the end of March to the first week of April, the barley crop is ready for harvest. Rain-fed crops yield between 2,000 and 2,500 kg/ha on average, while irrigated crops yield twice as much. Grain yields of 5 to 6 tons per hectare under ideal conditions.
Because the environment is warm even in the winter, maize can be planted at any time between April and October. Maize requires a sandy loam soil with organic materials that is well-drained. It grows well on soil with a pH of 5.5 to 8.0.
Buland variety matures in 178 days, is cold tolerant, and yields 31 q/acre on average, while Partap-1 matures in 180 days, is cold tolerant, disease resistant, and yields 25 q/acre on average, making it ideal for baby corn. PMH 9 is a 180-day maturing variety that is cold tolerant, lodging resistant, and resistant to common rust, with an average yield of 32.5 q/acre.
Spray Sevin (Carbaryl) 50 [email protected] 250g in 125 ltrs of water/ha. for Army worm and Silk cutter control, and Indofil M45 @ 500g in 250 ltrs of water/ha. for leaf blight control at 10-day intervals. Weed management is best achieved with a pre-emergence application of Atrazine at a rate of 1 kg a.i/ha. Even if the stacks and leaves are still green, the husk cover has dried and become brown, maize is ready to harvest. When the moisture content of maize is between 15-20%, shell it.
To save labor on dehusking, conventional harvester combines can be utilized to thresh Maize with Husk. To improve grain recoveries and reduce breakage losses during shelling, Maize ears should be dried for 3-4 days after harvesting.
Bengal Gram (Chickpea)
Gram is a winter crop; however, it is sensitive to extreme cold and frost. Temperature, day duration, and moisture availability are the three key abiotic elements that influence flowering. At the reproductive stage, chickpea is susceptible to both high (>35°C) and low (15°C) temperatures.
Flower drop, and reduced pod set are caused by both extremes of temperature. Chickpeas with colored and thick seed coat are called desi type. The most prevalent seed colors are brown, yellow, green, and black in various tints and combinations. White or beige-colored seed with ram’s head shape, thin seed coat, and smooth seed are characteristics of Kabuli chickpeas.
For desi and Kabuli grams, the best seed rates are 15-18 kg per acre and 37 kg per acre, respectively. Depending on seed size, it varies from variety to variety. To reduce seed and soil borne fungal diseases, the seeds should be treated with fungicides (2 g thiram + 1 g carbendazim kg-1 seed) before sowing.
If you’re growing chickpeas for the first time, you should inoculate the seeds with Rhizobium culture. Fertilizer doses should be determined using the findings of a soil test. Chickpea doses of 20–30 kilograms nitrogen (N) and 40–60 kg phosphorus (P) per hectare are commonly suggested. If your soils are deficient in potassium (K), you should apply 17 to 25 kg K ha-1. In rainfed crops, a foliar spray of 2% urea at flowering has been demonstrated to be advantageous.
Flaxseed is a cold-season crop farmed in India’s northern and southern regions. It can be cultivated in fertile, silty, and well-drained loamy deep soil. Flaxseed can be seeded using the uteri cropping technique, which involves seeding flaxseeds before harvesting a standing paddy crop in order to maximize moisture utilization in a rainfed agro-ecosystem. A relative humidity of 50-60% is required, as well as 7-8 inches of rain.
Flax roots penetrate deeper into the earth, so prepare the ground by ploughing it well. It is possible to plough 2-3 times. 30-40 kilograms seed per hectare is required. Seeds should be planted 4-5 cm below the soil surface, with a spacing of 20-30 cm between rows and 10 cm between crops.
Pests and illnesses that can impact flax crops include termites, cutworm, wireworm, semi looper, leaf minor, bud fly, pasmo, aster yellows, and grams pod borer. To safeguard the crop, avoid planting flaxseed in the same field multiple times, use a bud fly light trap and attractant, proper solarization, neem-based formulations, seed treatment to prevent seed-borne illnesses, and weed control with pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides.
Crop maturity is expected by the end of February, depending on the season and sowing time. The flax crop is ready to harvest when the leaves have dried, and the balls have turned brownish. Crop yields range from 210 to 450 kg/ha of seed, with irrigated crop yields ranging from 1,200 to 1,500 kg/ha.