Berseem and oat are the two most important feed crops. In the case of Berseem, Due to better production potential, succulence, palatability, nutritional value, and a seven-month continuous supply of fodder. It is regarded as the “King of Fodders.” It not only provides protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals, but it also improves the soil’s fertility and productivity. It produces about 400 quintal of very nutritious and tasty fodder in repeated cuttings from November to May’s end. It thrives in loam to clay loam soils that are high in lime and have adequate drainage. Berseem should be grown on terrain that is perfectly levelled and has good drainage. Three to four ploughings, each followed by planking, are required to prepare a healthy seed bed. Sowing should take place between October and November.
Berseem does not thrive in soils when it is sown for the first time, as it requires the association of a certain bacterial species (Rhizobium trifoli) for good growth. For an 8-10 kg seed treatment, mix one litre of 10% Gur solution with one package of berseem culture. On the same day, rub the culture on the seed, dry it in the shade, and distribute it in standing water, ideally in the evening because direct sunlight kills the bacteria. The first irrigation is crucial and should be done as soon as possible to ensure a decent yield. It should be used between 3-5 days of sowing in light soils and 6-8 days in heavy soils. Later, depending on soil type and weather, water every 8-10 days throughout the summer and every 10-15 days during the winter. After around 45 days of sowing, the first cutting is ready, and successive cuttings can be taken at 30-35-day intervals in the winter and at 25 to 30-day intervals in the spring and summer. It yields 5-6 cuts. Berseem harvesting should be done with a scythe, which saves roughly 50% of labor.
In addition to berseem, oats are an important fodder crop. It produces 200-220 quintals of feed per acre. It thrives in chilly, damp environments. The fraction of empty spikelet increases as the temperature rises during flowering, lowering the seed output. It grows in all soil types, with the exception of alkaline and wet soils. It can withstand somewhat acidic and saline environments. Prepare the seed bed by ploughing it three times to remove weeds and pulverize it. Three to four irrigations are sufficient, including the pre-sowing irrigation.
The first irrigation should be done 25-30 days after seeding, with following irrigations spaced 30-35 days apart. If you’re using a multicut management system, you should irrigate after each cut. Weed control can be achieved by using pre-emergent linuron or 0.2 kg 2,4-D per acre after emergence. From the boot through the milk stage, oats are harvested. The first cutting should take place 55-65 days after sowing, leaving an appropriate height of 3-4 inch, and successive cuts should take place 45-50 days apart. Crop sown before 15 November and left after first cutting 55-65 days following sowing for seed production. After sprouting, apply an extra dose of 12 kg N (33 kg urea) per acre. This crop yields roughly 6 quintals of seed and 100 quintals of green feed per acre.