We all know that a man is called a social animal. A man cannot live alone. He needs society. Now all persons want society. The man who lives in the society either in the villages or in the towns is called the citizen. Primarily, this word was used only for those persons who lived in urban areas, but later on the learned persons of political science changed their view and they regarded that any man in normal conditions living in a village or in a town or anywhere in the society of the state, is a citizen of that state. The society is organized in such a way that each individual contributes something for the purposes of the society. The citizens are all those adult persons who live in country or towns and who are conscious of their duties along with their rights. The citizens must live in society When they live in society, some organized body is needed for their protection. This body is called state. The work of the state is to maintain order and law. As such, it becomes the duty of all citizens to obey the laws and maintain order and peace.
Qualities of a good citizen
The citizen cannot be separated from citizenship is a complex of moral and legal obligation on the part of the citizen. The state can exists only if the citizens of the state are good.
As such a citizen plays a very important role in the existence of a state, so he must have some good qualities. A citizen, to be called a good citizen, must be very much conscious of his duties towards the state. He must be disciplined and should not do anything which in any way. He must co-operate with the may harm the nation of his caste and creed and his political Government irrespective He does not deceive feelings. A good citizen pays his tax regularizes his comforts and the state in any way. A good citizen luxuries for the cause of the state. In the period of crisis, he sacrifices his life even. During the war, he is ready to fight and protect the honour of the country. He never makes irresponsible speeches which generally go against the Government. He never creates dissatisfaction or disorder in the country. Apart from all these things he his conscious of his duties and does well. We shall see his duties in the coming paras.
A member of a society and state, every citizen has certain rights and privileges with all the other citizens of the State. He has certain rights and civil liberties which are given to him by the State. As a matter of fact, every citizen surrenders a part of his freedom to secure the freedom of the whole. As such he expects something from the State also. These things which he wants, are his rights.
These rights of a citizen can be kept in two groups civil rights and political rights. Under the civil rights come the right of protection of his life and property. He has the right of marriage, the sanctity of the house and that of private association. He has freedom of speech also. He can adopt any religion according to his sweet will. If the state is progressive and advanced, a citizen has the right of education, medical help and employment, disability or old age benefits.
The second group of rights is the political one. A political right is best illustrated by the right to exercise the franchise and to participate in legislation. A citizen has the political right of voting which is the fundamental right of the citizens of a democratic country. While electing a candidate to the legislature or contesting the election, a citizen feels that he has a voice in the Government of the country. A citizen has the right of permanent residence in the country. He has right of the protection of himself and his residence while he is staying abroad.
These rights are called the fundamental rights and a citizen is entitled to have these rights. There is one very great check upon these rights. This check is that citizen should permit other citizens to enjoy these rights.
These fundamental rights will be of no value unless the citizens perform certain duties also. If we do not perform the duties entrusted to us, we shall have no right to talk about rights also. If a citizen has his rights, he has responsibilities and obligation also. Every right has corresponding duties towards the state and society, Generally, we expect from the State that we must get all our rights, but we forget to perform our duties.
The first duty of a citizen is to be very loyal to the State. The loyalty is judged by his actions of obeying the laws of the State. The State has this rights of expecting such loyalty from its citizens. Again, the citizen must be ready to sacrifice his life also for the State. Suppose some foreign countries attack our country, now it is out duty to protect the country from the destruction of foreign invasion. If all the citizens are not ready to protect the country, she will be defeated and freedom of the country will go away and slavery will creep in the country.
Again’ a good citizen is expected to co-operate with the Government in running the administration and to accept the service under it.
Another duty of a citizen is to obey the laws. Definance of laws will encourage different kinds of crimes. As a result, there will be no peace in the society and it will relapse into a State of primitive tive barbarism.
No Government can be run without money. So the duty of a citizens is to pay the taxes regularly imposed upon him by the Government. No citizen should deceive the State by hiding his profits and incomes which are taxable.
The citizens are not expected to make irresponsible speeches during the war. It may adversely affect the country. Every citizen should realize that a State will function with the collective co-operation and responsibility of the citizen. It is also the duty of a citizen to cast his vote honestly without prejudice. He must try to elect the person only. These are a few important duties of a good citizen.
I may conclude saying that successful functioning of democracy depends upon the fulfillment to two important conditions. The first condition is that a citizen must get their all rights without any distinction and the second condition is that a citizen must perform his duties whole-heartedly without any grudge. If people cry only for their rights and do not discharge their duties well and if they take the law in their hands, the Government cannot survive. Again if the Government believes in dictatorship and does not give full freedom and all rights of the citizens to them, the Government will fail.
Fortunately in India, we have got all the fundamental rights of the citizens. There is need of cooperation with the Government.
Unfortunately, aware of rights but not of duties. If this continues, a danger may come to democracy and freedom. many parties are such which do hesitate to take the law their hands. This is bad. A good citizen should not do like that. We must know that it is our Government and we are ruling over ourselves. As such we must live like a good citizen.