Animal farming is an art, and one should adopt proper procedures to produce the best results. This article highlights the essential procedures one can adopt for different animals. It will also highlight different strategies to be taken in different months.
- During this time, Deworm all types of animals.
- After calving, the animal should become pregnant again in 2-3 months. Taking care of anestrous animals after giving birth is essential. Female calves aged 4 to 8 months should be vaccinated for brucellosis in herds with a brucellosis problem.
- Reduce the number of oilseed cakes in the concentrate mixture to reduce the amount of crude protein. Pruning the trees will let more light into the shed.
- To protect animals from the cold, tie them up in a dry spot. Replace the damp bedding material/straw as soon as possible.
- Give heeng to calves regularly to keep them warm.
- Animals should be kept under a roof at night and out in the sun during the day. If teats cracks, use a glycerin and betadine treatment.
- While feeding the first cut of berseem, mix the straw. Give the animal the vegetable oil (mustard, sesame, peanut, or sunflower oil) if the animal is bloated. Avoid Berseem in animals with prolapse.
- Do not completely enclose the shed. Keep the shed’s windows and skylights open for ventilation.
- Give the animals lukewarm water to drink on occasion to keep them warm.
- Keep animals on the katcha floor for half the time to prevent lameness.
- Use an acaricide to control ectoparasites in cattle if there is an infestation.
- This month, find out what summer fodder is available and fill it. Inspect the shed’s fans and fountains for proper operation.
- Test the animal for conception two to three months after insemination.
- To keep pests and germs out of the shed, use a 10% phenyl or a 2% copper sulphate (neela thotha) solution. Reduce the mobility of pregnant animals aged 7–8 months and feed them a potent combination based on their milk production level. Dried-up animals require 1.5-2.5 kg of concentrate mixture each day.
- If indications of oestrous occur, re-inseminate the animals inseminated in September. Goats born in October will give birth in March.
- Provide vaccination against foot and mouth disease again this month. Give PPR vaccination to all animals.
- Feed legume fodder regularly.
- Fill holes in the floor with soil and start preparing for winter maintenance. Allow no sewage to collect within the shed.
- Keep the shed open on all sides to allow for airflow. Begin providing paddy straw as a source of animal bedding. Children may be a handful.
- To keep them warm, wrap them in a gunny bag or jhull.
- On severely chilly days, provide lukewarm water at least twice a day. Add a small amount of sugar or salt to the water at this point.
- Examine all of the goats for symptoms of illness.
- Make sure goat pens have adequate drainage and that the floor is clean and dry. Cover the bottom with straw or bedding stuff.
- Isolate the goats about to give birth and give them an extra 250-500g concentrate mixture every day.
- Pregnant goats’ diets should be balanced in each situation, depending on the circumstances.
- For licking, put uromin lick/salt in the manger.
- This is the most acceptable time of year to start a new goat business.
- You can also buy more goats/kids during this month to expand your herd.
- For about a month, keep newly purchased goats in a separate location. Trim the hair on both sides of the goat’s rear legs around the parturition. Dry the baby with a clean cloth after parturition and feed them colostrums as soon as feasible.
- Use clean scissors to cut the lamb umbilicus, disinfect with an iodine solution. After this, de-worm the herd.
- Disbudding should begin at the age of two weeks in children.
- Begin feeding your child fresh fodder, such as berseem, when they are three weeks old.
- Keep the kids’ pen dry, airy, and clean to prevent diarrhoea.
- Vaccinate two-month-old piglets against swine fever.
- Check the number of teats on an 8–12-month-old gilt, and choose a gilt with a greater count for breeding. Eight-month-old boars can also be utilised for breeding.
- To keep warm, spread bedding material across the bed. Trim the Male pigs’ larger hooves and needle teeth. Pay specific attention to any swelling in the joints.
- If they have a history of abortions, test them for brucellosis.
- To keep piglet pens warm, use bulbs. If possible, provide warm drinking water.
- To allow more light into the farm, prune the trees around it.
- The optimal period to establish a new piggery farm is from mid-January to February. Purchase piglets/adult animals from a reputable source.
- Only Piglets at least two months old and weighing at least eight kilogrammes should be acquired.
- Purchase Male and female animals from separate sources. If this isn’t possible, at the very least, purchase piglets from different sows.
- Before buying, double-check that the teats are in rows and that the total number of teats is greater than or equal to six pairs.
- The passel must be de-wormed (group of pigs).
- Clean the calving pen and spread straw/bedding material near the calving time. Using potassium permanganate water, bathe the pregnant sow. 10 days before calving, isolate them in the calving pen.
- Wipe the piglets clean with a clean cloth after calving and help them suckle the colostrum.
- To keep children warm, hang a light bulb about two feet high.
- To treat anaemia, cut the needle teeth two days before delivery and offer iron supplementation on the third and thirteenth days. In the second week, start feeding solid meals.
- 45-60 days after calving, wean the piglets and begin feeding them a solid diet with 20-22 percent raw protein.
- Sell the male children under the age of 15 days.
These are some of the insights which can be adopted in the future for better animal farming in the Jammu Region.