Almost all the men of this world have certain aims before them, before doing any work. This aim gives incentive to the one and so he gets success in his work. Our every art, inquiry, action and pursuit is considered to aim at some good. Good is the thing at which all things of the world aim. The product of certain aim should be better than his work. The thing can be easily applied to the Government. The aim of the Government should be good, the product of the Government should be better. This type of the Government is the best type of Government.
These two lines have been composed by Alexander Pope, one of most famous classical poets of English literature of 18th century. According to him the chief concern of mankind is not to quarrel over the forms of Government or forms of religion. That Government is the best one whose administration is the best. Pope was one of the greatest satirists of English literature. He has criticized in this well-known maxim the Government of England, and the tea clubs and restaurants where all sorts of people used to assemble and all sorts of discussions used to take place. They used to discuss the political and economic topics there. They used to criticize the Government also. Pope was totally against such things. He thought that it was simply a wastage of time and energy to talk about the forms of the Government. Pope writes his thoughts here in the line that “whatever is best administered is best”.
There are many type of the Government. Every Government has its vices and virtues. No Government is without fault. Therefore, it is foolish to fight for the form of the Government. Our aim is to see the result of the rules, regulations and laws of the Government. If the result of the laws of the Government is fruitful and all are benefited by it without any distinction, we shall say that Government is the best one. But if even the good type of Government fails in producing the good product, we shall say that the Government is bad. Our work is to see the result of the action of the Government.
Every forms of Government has its own flaws and its own qualities. It is the time which is the greatest factor of judging the goodness of the form of the Government. The kings of the Shakespearean time, though all of them dictators, were welcomed and respected much. The Shakespearean audience used to welcome such kings with a loud applause. These dictators were tyrannical, even then they were worshiped like God. In our Indian history, there are hundreds of examples of the dictatorial types of kings but all of them were praised and worshiped much. The Mauryas and the Guptas were great warriors who must have killed lakhs of people in the war, even then they were respected and worshipped much in these periods. The Mughals were foreigners even than Akbar is remembered even today for his religion and achievements.
Is it possible today in this modern age?
Perhaps all those kings of the ancient time must have failed and most of them beheaded at this time. So, it is the time and place which also plays a dominant part in the decision of the best form of the Government. Everything which is beautiful itself terminates itself not having or criticism does not make a part of its beauty. In this way if we indulge in futile discussion regarding the forms of the Government, we are sure to fall into confusion. We only commit one mistake after the other and waste years in the application of new theories to the actual administration with no result.
As such it is advisable to accept the views of Pope that what is administered best is the best form of the Government.
No Government without fault
All the types of Government in the world are full of flaws and shortcoming. History speaks the truth of the corruption under the dictatorial Government of Europe, India, Russia and Greece in the ancient time. The monarchs of England were considered to be the representative God and God is without fault, benevolent to all but they were full of vices. The history of Russia will tell us about the dictatorial administration of Russian Czars and the tyrannical monarchs of ancient Greece. Our head is held high with great pride when we read in the Indian history about the rules, regulations, manners, beauty and culture etc, of the Court of the Mughal emperors, about their lust and love of art and architect, about their luxurious life, but at the same time we also know about the terror which prevailed among the subject at that time. The Taj Mahal, the Forts of Delhi and Agra, the Jama Masjid etc. and hundreds of other buildings of the Mughal emperors stand matchless even today, but we must remember that every brick. of these buildings is not without the blood of Indian peasants. We all know the golden age of Elizabeth in England, of Akbar, Shahjahan and Gupta in India and of so many others. They were the best and the worst possible ages. The type of the administration in those periods was good for the coward and God fearing and religion-minded people. The people being ruled by the Nazis and the Fascists in Germany and Italy used to think that to live under democratic Government was very insulting. Hitler and Mussolini had declared that their will was the will of God and they were the representative of God, even than some people worshipped them and were happy under their rules.
These days we like democracy
A Government of the people, by the people and for the people. In those days, people liked dictator ship: these days we like democracy. The dictatorial Governments of those days were full of flaws and the democratic Governments of this age are also full of vices. In India there is democracy, but are we happy? Is the political freedom sufficient for us? There are the problems of food, employment, language etc., before us. The dearness is at its zenith, the price of everything is shooting up day by day and we are happy to think that it is our Government though in the heart of our hearts we dislike it and want some new types of administration.
Considering all these things we come to the conclusion that actually they who fight for the forms of the Government are fools. Pope’s maxim holds good that it is not our work to fight for the forms of the Government. Actually we should be far away form political discussion and fallacies in our own interest.